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SOME RECENT ESTIMATES OF THE EMISSIONS AND REMOVALS OF THE HUNGARIAN FORESTS


The estimation of emissions and removals is done using a complex methodology which was developed by the IPCC. The estimation is gas specific. For details on the Hungarian adaptation of the methodology and other details, see Somogyi 2008, National Inventory Report (NIR) of Hungary 2010, CRF of Hungary, and also the KP LULUCF report of Hungary 2010.


Carbon-dioxide

CO2 emissions are calculated from estimated carbon stock changes. Due to lack of data, these changes can only be estimated for the above-ground biomass and the below-ground biomass. Based on the latest forest inventory data available, and based on our current understanding of carbon stock changes in forests, the Hungarian forests are sinks, which means that they sequester more carbon (i.e., they remove more CO2 from the air) than what they emit. Sequestration occurs due to photosynthesis, whereas emission occur due to decomposition of dead trees, harvesting, as well as forest fires and controlled burning.

The rate of sequestration is estimated for full calendar years. In other words, statistics include all carbon that is fixed during a year. The rate of sequestration varies within a year, but also from one year to another, due to variability of climate and other factors that affect tree growth, respiration and decomposition, but also due to the variability of human activities, i.e. harvest from year to year.

The total amount of net sequestration by calendar year is reported in the table below for years 1985-2010. In statistics like this, emissions are usually positive numbers, thus, the below negative numbers demonstrate that the forests in Hungary are sinks.

 

Year Net CO2 emissions (+) / removals (-)
(Gg)
1985 -1 388
1986 -3 498
1987 -3 930
1988 -4 179
1989 -2 916
1990 -2 580
1991 -2 896
1992 -3 611
1993 -5 225
1994 -5 736
1995 -5 798
1996 -1 898
1997 -2 175
1998 -3 151
1999 -1 514
2000 - 505
2001 -1 986
2002 -1 473
2003 -3 587
2004 -2 617
2005 -4 721
2006 -2 733
2007 -3 029
2008 -4 145

Source: National Inventory Report (NIR) of Hungary 2010, CRF of Hungary, and KP LULUCF report of Hungary 2010


Non-CO2 emissions

In forests, just like in other ecosystems, but also in settlements, industry and transportation, many greenhouse gases are exchanged between the air and other pools in addition to carbon-dioxide. The most important such gases in forests are methane, carbon-monoxide and nitrous oxides. In an attempt to have an idea of the importance of these gases in the Hungarian forestry, we also estimated the emission of some non-CO2 greenhouse gases, by also applying the methodology developed by the IPCC. Such emissions mainly occur due to controlled burning of slash (i.e., residues of wood harvesting) and wildfires. The emissions from wildfires can only be estimated since 1999.

Note that non-CO2 greenhouse gases have different warming effects. The measure of these effects are called "Global warming potentials". The greenhouse gas effect of CH4 is 21-times stronger that of CO2. The respective value for N2O is 310! Thus, although the numbers in the below table seem to be small, they are in fact important. However, the below estimates are rather uncertain due to the nature of the emissions and the respective gases, and are here for information only.

Year Controlled burning Wildfires
CH4 CO N2O NOx CH4 CO N2O NOx
(Gg) (Gg) (Gg) (Gg) (Gg) (Gg) (Gg) (Gg)
1985 1,1661 10,2045 0,0080 0,2899        
 1986 1,1809 10,3339 0,0081 0,2935        
 1987 1,1371 9,9504 0,0078 0,2826        
 1988 1,1024 9,6467 0,0076 0,2740        
1989 1,1009 9,6342 0,0076 0,2737        
1990 1,0160 8,8913 0,0070 0,2526        
1991 0,9896 8,6601 0,0068 0,2460        
1992 0,9058 7,9263 0,0062 0,2251        
1993 0,8000 7,0005 0,0055 0,1988        
1994 0,8180 7,1579 0,0056 0,2033        
1995 0,8544 7,4766 0,0059 0,2124        
1996 0,9290 8,1299 0,0064 0,2309        
1997 0,9465 8,2832 0,0065 0,2353        
1998 0,9223 8,0709 0,0063 0,2292        
1999 0,9670 8,4625 0,0066 0,2404 0,0103 0,0900 0,0001 0,0026
2000 1,0339 9,0478 0,0071 0,2570 0,2742 2,3998 0,0019 0,0682
2001 0,9875 8,6419 0,0068 0,2455 0,1954 1,7099 0,0013 0,0486
2002 0,9942 8,7001 0,0068 0,2471 0,1954 1,7099 0,0013 0,0486
2003 1,0055 8,7989 0,0069 0,2499 0,1680 1,4699 0,0012 0,0418
2004 1,0093 8,8325 0,0069 0,2509 0,0069 0,0600 0,0000 0,0017
2005 1,0356 9,0625 0,0071 0,2574 0,5828 5,0997 0,0040 0,1449
2006 1,0105 8,8425 0,0069 0,2512 0,0103 0,0900 0,0001 0,0026
2007 0,9519 8,3298 0,0065 0,2366 0,5039 4,4100 0,0035 0,1253
2008 1,0054 8,7978 0,0069 0,2499 0,0111 0,0976 0,0001 0,0028

Source: National Inventory Report (NIR) of Hungary 2010, CRF of Hungary, and KP LULUCF report of Hungary 2010



This webpage was last modified by Zoltan Somogyi 29 June 2014.

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